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Overview of the Core and Full Nomologies of PMT as Process Variance Model from Boss et. The earlier a person starts smoking, the greater the harm, 2. Wallerstein N, Sanchez-Merki V. Freirian praxis in health education: research results from an adolescent prevention program. Despite the significance of many behavioral theories, including PMT, in explaining adolescent health behavior in general [7,24,25,51], and tobacco use behavior in particular [2,51], health behavioral research in China has largely been conducted without a guiding theoretical framework . Despite substantial and documented tobacco control efforts in China, researchers have found only limited success in preventing or reducing tobacco use among adolescents [28,34]. â¢ Studies should consider maladaptive response rewards involved with not vaccinating. One obvious challenge is the lack of relevant measurement scales of the essential constructs in the theoretical approach. ehavioral intention is presumed to directly impact actual behavior (Maddux & Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1975). Intrinsic Rewards, 0.61 for Extrinsic Rewards, 0.73 for Self-Efficacy, 0.68 for Responsive Efficacy, and 0.59 for Response Cost respectively. "A Protection Motivation Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change," Journal of Psychology (91:1), pp. Gurung, A., Luo, X., and Liao, Q. Corcoran RD, Allegrante JP. The central tenet of the theory is that people protect themselves based on their perceptions of four factors: the severity of a threatening event, the probability of Importantly, the best fear appeals create both high threat and high efficacy because they address both the threat and the individualâs ability to deal with it (Milne et al. This is essential for understanding smoking behavior among Chinese youth to support more effective tobacco use prevention. The current study focuses on the application of protection motivation theory to predicting and changing proâenvironmental behaviours using a systematic mapping approach. â¢ Response efficacy is the strongest predictor of intention to vaccinate. One will miss the enjoyment if he or she does not smoke. Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective behaviors in users,â MIS Quarterly (MISQ), vol. The scale should also be tested and evaluated in other non-western countries towards the broader goal of promoting global efforts for tobacco control using theory-based measurement tools and intervention designs. Second, in the coping-appraisal process, a personâs response efficacy and self-efficacy must outweigh the response costs for engaging in the protection motivation. âMotivating the insider to protect organizational information assets: Evidence from protection motivation theory and rival explanations,â Proceedings of the Dewald Roode Workshop in Information Systems Security 2011, IFIP WG 8.11 / 11.13, Blacksburg, VA, September 22â23, pp. Protection â¦ The survey was administered by trained data collectors from Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. A Protection Motivation Theory-Based Scale for Tobacco Research among Chinese Youth. As a conceptual framework, PMT has been utilized in intervention research in the West to develop and evaluate programs for purposeful behavior change, including interventions promote adherence to medical treatment regimens [21,22], prevent substance use [10,11], and discourage HIV risk behaviors and encourage HIV protective behaviors [23–26]. The protection motivation theory proposes that people protect themselves based on four factors: the perceived severity of a threatening event, the perceived probability of the occurrence, or vulnerability, the efficacy of the recommended preventive behavior, and the perceived self efficacy. The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. 2000; Witte and Allen 2000). Methods A systematic screening of 132 databases was performed, resulting in the identification of 22 relevant studies with the total N = 12,827. The PMT's threat appraisal component is composed of the following: the person's estimate of the severity of the disease (perceived severity) and his or her estimate of the chance of contracting the disease (perceived vulnerability). Protection motivation theory and per capita income explained 51% of motivation variance and 25% of the variance of skin cancer preventive behaviors. Atypical item for this construct is “People will feel good by not smoking.” Finally, the three items compromising Response Costs evaluate the perceived psycho-social costs incurred from not smoking, for example “Refusing a cigarette offer is very impolite.”. Overview of Central Constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Runge C, Prentice-Dunn S, Scogin F. Protection motivation theory and alcohol use attitudes among older adults. Chen X, Stanton B, Fang X, Li X, Lin D, et al. âThe impact of organizational commitment on insidersâ motivation to protect organizational information assets,â Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS) (forthcoming). Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement. The PMT Coping Appraisal Pathway consists of three constructs in two groups Perceived Efficacy and Perceived Costs. 196-213. Ma H, Unger JB, Chou CP, Sun P, Palmer PH, et al. Our analysis indicated a significant correlation between the measured CO and the reported number of cigarettes smoked (r = 0.50, p<0.01). In the current study, a culturally appropriate 21-item measurement scale for cigarette smoking was developed based on the core constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Action-control: From cognition to behavior. protection motivation theory, the present study is aimed to conduct a path analysis of skin cancer preventive behaviors in rural women to explore these factors. Cronbach α coefficients were 0.76 for Severity, 0.48 for Vulnerability, 0.80 for. CO in the exhaled air reflects tobacco exposure in past 6–9 hours, and has been used as an effective biomarker for verification of self-reported smoking data [63,64]. Perceived Threat consists of two constructs, Severity and Vulnerability. 51-71. Vaughan E. Chronic exposure to an environmental hazard: risk perceptions and self-protective behavior. Protection motivation âthe protection motivation concept involves any threat for which there is an effective recommended response that can be carried out by the individualâ (Floyd et al. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeal and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors. "Threat or Coping Appraisal: Determinants of SMB Executives' Decision to Adopt Anti-Malware Software," European Journal of Information Systems (18:2), pp. The pilot version was then tested among a small group of 10 Chinese middle school students to assess the readability and need for further revision. The basic idea of PMT is that a fear appeal triggers the threat-appraisal process. Protection motivation theory and the prediction of physical activity among adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in a large population sample. Ideally a fear appeal does not just increase threat but would also increase efficacy by giving a respondent a path to address the threat. Additional studies are needed to assess its utility for use with Chinese youth in other settings. Unger JB, Yan L, Shakib S, Rohrbach LA, Chen X, et al. Among the total 553 students, 275 (49.73%) were male, 300 (54.25%) were year-one students, and 253 (45.75%) were year-two students with a mean age of 16.31 years (SD = 1.12). HIV-related risk factors associated with commercial sex among female migrants in China. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants. behavior. Clay Posey, Tom L. Roberts, and Paul Benjamin Lowry (2015). (2015, p. 840), R. W. Rogers; later revised with S. Prentice-Dunn. Anderson Johnson C, Palmer PH, Chou CP, Pang Z, Zhou D, et al. "Analyzing Home PC Security Adoption Behavior," Journal of Computer Information Systems (52:4), pp. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior. Two smoking measures were used as outcome variables: intention to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked per day. This article shows how sanctioning rhetoric can improve the effectiveness of fear-appeal manipulations. Intrinsic Rewards assesses the perceived positive physical and psychological effect from engaging in a risk behavior, and Extrinsic Rewards assesses the perceived positive social reactions or consequences of engaging in the risk behavior. The mean score of the 21 items was 4.20 (SD=0.66), slightly greater than the middle point (=4.00) of the seven-point Likert Scale. In addition, we found only one etiological study to date among those conducted in China that used the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as the guiding theoretical framework [47–49]. Youth risk behavior surveillance--United States, 2005. Data were collected in the classroom using the Chinese Student Health Behavior Questionnaire (CSHBQ). Johnston, A. C., Warkentin, M., and Siponen, M. 2015. âWhat do users have to fear? Mao R, Li X, Stanton B, Wang J, Hong Y, et al. In the present study, we developed and tested a PMT scale specifically for tobacco research in China. Patterns of cigarette smoking among students from 19 colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province, China: a latent class analysis. According to PMT, propensity to engage in protective behaviours (e.g., obtaining a vaccination) in response to a threat is determined by the beliefs that people have about engaging in â¦ Guo B, Aveyard P, Fielding A, Sutton S. The factor structure and factorial invariance for the decisional balance scale for adolescent smoking. People will be less likely to get disease if they do not smoke, 18. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. In addition, two constructs--Vulnerability and Response Cost-had low reliability. "Keeping Our Network Safe: A Model of Online Protection Behaviour," Behaviour & Information Technology (27:5), pp. It is critical that health research be guided by theory, but there are barriers that must be addressed. A seven-point Likert scale with 1 = “definitely disagree” to 7 = “definitely agree” was used for item scoring. Bledsoe LK. Rogers, R. W. 1983. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies. Tanner JF, Hunt JBE, David R. The Protection Motivation Model: A Normative Model of Fear Appeals. Understanding anti-plagiarism software adoption: An extended protection motivation theory perspective. The US-developed PMT may offer a promising theoretical framework for understanding tobacco use behavior in China. Sample characteristics and smoking behavior are summarized in (Table 1). The theory attempts to explain and predict what motivates people to change their behavior. Perceived Efficacy consists of two constructs, Self-Efficacy and Response Efficacy. Using the Protection Motivation Theory construct of coping appraisal, the parents would be lectured on the effectiveness of different weight loss strategies for children, such as playing games or sports for physical activity and learning different healthy snack food options for kids. Descriptive statistics such as rate, mean, and standard deviation, were used to summarize sample characteristics and students’ responses to the adapted PMT scale. on the constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) . 2000, p. 411). Scores for Perceived Rewards were the mean of Intrinsic Rewards and Extrinsic Rewards, and scores for Perceived Efficacy were computed as the mean of Self-Efficacy and Response Efficacy. 837â864. While these articles contribute to our understanding of motivational theory, I concur with Murphy and Alexander (this issue) that there remains much to be done. Perceptions and attitudes regarding sex and condom use among Chinese college students: a qualitative study. This study was supported in part by the NIH research grant (Award #: R01MH086322, PI: X. Chen) and by Wuhan Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Hesketh T, Ding QJ, Tomkins A. PMT was first introduced by Rogers to understand the effects of fear appeals on health-related attitude and behavior . Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 243 rural women were randomly selected from the west of Iran to receive a In this study, the central constructs of PMT significantly predicted smoking intent and behavior. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Smoking among youths in China. 2000–2001. Lee Y. Guo Q, Johnson CA, Unger JB, Lee L, Xie B, et al. Scott R. Boss, Dennis F. Galletta, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Gregory D. Moody, and Peter Polak (2015). To validate reported smoking data, levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaled air were assessed using PiCO+™ (Smokerlyzer carbon monoxide monitor, USA). behaviors that lead an individual toward a health risk behaviors and/or to noxious consequences) and, 2) Coping Appraisal, assessing the ability to manage and avoid the threatened danger described by Threat Appraisal. No one could persuade me if I do not want to smoke, 14. 613-643. We developed an instrument I can refuse even if a relative or friend asks me to smoke, 17. Cigarette smoking among junior high school students in Beijing, China, 1988. Perceived Rewards also includes two constructs, Intrinsic Rewards and Extrinsic Rewards. Cigarette smoking in China. Karen MacDonell, Xinguang Chen, [...], and Bonita Stanton. Herath, T., and Rao, H. 2009. Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective behaviors in users,â MIS Quarterly (MISQ), vol. Objective To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. Rogers, R. W., and Prentice-Dunn, S. 1997. The quality of life of chronically ill individuals, such as hay fever sufferers, is significantly dependent on their health behavior. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking. Among the total 556 students in the sampled classes, three refused to participate, yielding a final sample of 553 (99.5%). Zhang H, Stanton B, Li X, Mao R, Sun Z, et al. PMT has been widely used in the West as a framework for researchers to investigate and understand a range of health-related behaviors [7,8]. "Protection Motivation Theory," in Handbook of Health Behavior Research I: Personal and Social Determinants, D. S. Gochman (ed. 1â51. Studies indicate the constructs of the PMT which influence CUI vary by sex and sexual experience. Chen X, Lunn S, Deveaux L, Li X, Brathwaite N, et al. A theory-based approach is also critical for successful intervention research promoting purposeful behavior change and risk reduction [35–38]. 353-363. B. change behavior by intimidation. From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. This article re-introduced the idea of the fear appeal from PMT to the IS field. Protection motivation theory constructs accounted for 62% of variance in intention. We must continue our quest to clarify the conditions under which motivational constructs best predict achievement behavior. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Zhang L, Wang W, Zhao Q, Vartiainen E. Psychosocial predictors of smoking among secondary school students in Henan, China. The PMT scale developed for this study consisted of 21 items with three items for each of the seven PMT constructs. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. The scale provides a potential tool for assessing social cognitive processes underlying tobacco use. In addition to etiological studies, the PMT scale can be used to measure potential mediating-and/or outcome variables when developing and evaluating intervention programs for tobacco use prevention among Chinese adolescents. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the behavior [ 24 ]. Schroeder SA, Fulton DC. Consistent with PMT, youth who reported perceiving higher threat from smoking were less likely to report that they intended to smoke, and had less smoking behavior. Crossler, R. E., and BÃ©langer, F. 2014. Separately, a fear appeal is the stimulus designed to trigger both fear and the threat-appraisal and coping-appraisal processes. Research indicates the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a robust model for understanding how sexual risk and protective behaviors are associated with condom use intention (CUI). "Understanding Security Behaviors in Personal Computer Usage: A Threat Avoidance Perspective," Journal of the Association for Information Systems (11:7), pp. Among these studies, we identified only two intervention studies that included guiding theories related to social influences and media receptivity [27,50]. PMTâs main contribution is its capacity to predict usersâ intentions to protect themselves after receiving fear-arousing recommendations: âThe purpose of PMT research is usually to persuade people to follow the communicatorâs recommendations; so, intentions indicate the effectiveness of the attempted persuasionâ (Floyd et al. Gong J, Stanton B, Lunn S, Deveaux L, Li X, et al. Ifinedo, P. 2012. The drafted items were circulated among the co-authors and their colleagues for feedback to produce a draft version. "[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2292761 Improving password cybersecurity The acceptability, reliability, and validity of the established PMT scale indicate the utility of PMT as a construct for measuring and understanding perceptions of smoking and related health consequences among Chinese adolescents. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. Strobino D, Keane V, Holt E, Hughart N, Guyer B. Parental attitudes do not explain underimmunization. Scott R. Boss, Dennis F. Galletta, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Gregory D. Moody, and Peter Polak (2015). Johnston, A. C., and Warkentin, M. 2010. 361-369. As explained carefully by Boss et al. Yang H, Li X, Stanton B, Chen X, Liu H, et al. Method: Inactive women ( N = 60) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) PMT intervention, (2) attention control, or (3) non- 549-566. We wish to express our gratitude and thanks to the teachers and students who were involved in this study. Even if all who around me smoke, that do not mean I must smoke, 15. Hazard of smoking initiation by age among adolescents in Wuhan, China. LaRose, R., Rifon, N. J., and Enbody, R. 2008. Following PMT theory and the published data, the lead author of this article drafted individual items (4–5 items per sub-construct). Claar, C. L., and Johnson, J. Weiss JW, Palmer PH, Chou CP, Mouttapa M, Johnson CA. Results in Figure 2a indicate a satisfactory fit of the data with the one-level four-construct model for the Threat Appraisal Pathway (chi-square/df = 1.82, RMSEA = 0.04, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98). Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) Generally, the intention of human beings to engage in any behavior is the most vital determinant of the beha-vior . Results in Figure 3b also showed a satisfactory fit of the data to Two-Level Coping Appraisal Model (Chi-square/df = 2.86, RMSEA = 0.06, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.97). Figure 1. Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective behaviors in users, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2292761, Motivating the insider to protect organizational information assets: Evidence from protection motivation theory and rival explanations, The impact of organizational commitment on insidersâ motivation to protect organizational information assets, https://is.theorizeit.org/w/index.php?title=Protection_motivation_theory&oldid=880. 2010. Risk factors for sexually transmitted disease among rural-to-urban migrants in China: implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention. Despite the potential utility of the scale, there are notable weaknesses in the instrument. J Addict Res Ther. Overall, scores for the Threat Appraisal Pathway were calculated as the difference between Perceived Threat and Perceived Rewards such that a higher score indicated a net surplus of perceived threat as compared to the rewards. Protection motivation and self-effecacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Anderson CL, Agarwal R. Practicing safe computing: a multimedia empirical examination of home computer user security behavioral intentions. Smoking makes people feel comfortable, 9. 2013. The two primary PMT pathways, Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal, were associated with intentions to smoke and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. 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