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plato communism pdf

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Another point of similarity is state controlled education but Plato’s educational process is a regimented one aimed at training the ruling classes while under the state of proletarian dictatorship, there would uniform and compulsory school education for all and higher education according to one’s aptitude and choice. Another point of similarity is suggested creation of society free from exploitation, tension and conflict that would be based on the principles of fraternity, solidarity and harmony. Plato fails to condemn the institution of slavery and regard it as fundamental evil. No parent is to know his own child or any child his parent.” All the children are brothers and sisters and all adults are their mothers and fathers. Therefore confining women into domestic chorus was wasting half of the potential social talent. Both emphasize the unity but Plato’s unity is hierarchical, whereas Marxism emphasizes the unity of working classes to end the ruling class hegemony. Plato: The First Socialist. Cries of "inconsistency" have been raised on all sides. -Human coupling will be based upon 'love' and individual desire, not social status. Devotion to their civic duties admits no private rival. He wanted a state free of problems, a scared and the super-most institute. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILUf.ENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF lVLASTER OF ARTS IN LOYOLA . These economic differences were the key to the political institutions and it was no new idea, which the Greeks were following since ages. Sophists, “the roving universities” were professional teacher and would teach the children for a fee that only rich could afford. Plato’s scheme of communism deprived the guardian class not only of property, but also a private life or a family because family introduced an element of thine and mine. Plato’s Theory of Communism (Including 2 Forms of Communism)! “It affects less than half of the persons and less than half of the goods of the society to which it belongs.” Barker’s quantification is very generous it does not apply to even hundredth of the population. Plato opined that family was the great stronghold of selfishness, and for this reason it has to be banned for the governing class. Plato’s belief that wealth has a corrupting influence on politics hence the rulers must be deprived of it, to the extent that the words ‘mine’ and ‘yours’ disappear from their vocabulary. Plato’s this scheme is based on his genetic misconception, “bad crow lays bad eggs”. According to most experts, communist ideas in the bud were already contained in the “State” of Plato, where the state structure was based, in which management would be carried out by philosophers deprived of their property. [4] When used in this sense, the word form is often capitalized. Comparison with modern Communism – the Marxian Communism. Immediately after their birth, they would be taken to a nursery and nursed and nurtured there. The longings for family and property make the rulers self-seeking, indulgent, greedy and hence corrupt that is a diversion from and impediment to appropriate performance of their duty to rule not in their own but in public interest. Plato argues the abolition of family on two counts. Plato’s communism is of two forms, viz., the abolition of private property, which included house, land, money, etc., and the second, the abolition of family, through the abolition of these two, Plato attempted to create a new social order wherein the ruling class surrendered both family and private property and embraced a system of communism. Plato’s scheme of communism deprived the guardian class not only of property, but also a private life or a family because family introduced an element of thine and mine. Long before The Republic was written, Euripides had divided citizens into three classes, viz., the useless rich—who are always greedy for more, the poor—who have nothing and are devoured by envy, and finally the middle class—a strong body of men who saves the state. Plato further stipulated the age for both men and women for begetting children. Plato contemplates the rule of philosopher king and Marx termed philosophy as ideology and reserves more respectable term science for his critique of the political economy. Either slavery is abolished in his Ideal State or Plato finds slavery so insignificant and taken for granted, in that was not worth reckoning. If anybody flouted the rules, they were treated as unholy and unrighteous beings. But, modern communism espoused a global vision to bring about a world revolution to usher in a communist society. They shall live in the state managed barracks and eat in the common mess. Plato met with Socrates in 407 BC and became his desciple . Plato’s society is a class society with ruling classes practicing communism of property and wives, Marxian communism is a classless society in which men and women live as equal comrades. “So far then in regulating the positions of women, we may claim to have come safely through one hazardous proposition that male and female guardians shall have all occupations in common. His theory applies to only a parasitic (non-producers), miniscule minority of rulers, who rule over the vast majority of economic producers and traders, who in the then contemporary Athens were free and equal citizens with the right to participate in legal and juridical deliberations. Plato deprived them of all valuables such as gold and silver, and were told that the diviner metal is within them, and therefore there is no need for any ornaments as it might pollute the divine thoughts. Plato’s theory of communism is just opposite to Marxian theory of communism that seeks to eventually establish a classless and hence stateless society, as according to it the state is instrument of the domination in the hands of ruling classes. Though Plato structured the society in this manner, he never made any attempt to work out his plan that ensured such a system to function. Aristotle had pejoratively comments that he would happier to have even one distant cousin than hundreds of brothers and sisters. This was a revolutionary novel idea to his time where women were married in childhood and confined in to four walls of family and domestic chorus all their life. Plato’s theory of communism is based on his belief of corrupting influences of family and property over people holding the public offices that remains a historic fact and continuing norm. Plagiarism Prevention 4. The gist of Plato’s communism is deprivation of all the members of the ruling classes, the guardians and soldiers from having any private property including private house, land or gold and silver (wealth). According to Plato, they would be the property of the state. Plato’s society is a class society with ruling classes practicing communism of property and wives, Marxian communism is a classless society in which men and women live as equal comrades. The ruling classes are forced to leave the longing for gold and silver and also of private wives in the larger interest of the state. The Ideal state would need future guardians. All power reserve by the state. Copyright 10. Plato or Aristotle were nighter socialist, communist nor capitalist this as such concepts did not exist materially until 2000years later. They shall be paid no salary or allowances, their essential needs shall be taken by the state. Communism. Though he allows theoretical equality to men but contradicts himself by his so many remarks in Republic and elsewhere. Communism has common roots with socialism. Plato during his visit to Egypt was impressed by his observation that the clergymen living ascetic life were the revered rulers. They are to have no other occupation; and in these duties, the lighter part must fall on the women because of the weakness of their sex. Both consider individual interest to be safest in the collective social interest. Family education is limited and inappropriate to instill the sense of absolute commitment to the state in future guardians. There is no scheme of upward mobility of the lower classes, though there is scope for downward mobility, as we have seen above that offspring of inferior couples and those born by unauthorized coupling are secretly thrust over the producing community, if not abandoned or buried in some remote corner. It is aimed at freeing the ruling classes, i.e. Cohen 2000a: ch.3; Fraser 2014: 57–9),capitalism involves certain relations of production. Plato's real name was Aristocles.He excelled in the study of music , mathematics ,poetry and rhetoric . The guardians were paid salaries just right enough for their maintenance. Plato’s theory is meant for 4th century BC small city states and Marx’s communism is an alternative to capitalism that has a global character and hence the communism to is global, that is why Marx called for the unity of the workers of the world. Fascists took inspiration from sources as ancient as the Spartans for their focus on racial purity and their emphasis on rule by an elite minority. But here again as Plato’s communism is applicable to only ruling classes and Marx’s universally. Hence primacy lies with the object, which in a dialectic unity with its idea forms the totality of the reality. Some authors have stated that Plato's political philosophy was the earliest form of Communism. Merita ; Introduction. They do not create justices/injustices, they only analyze; critique; explain; justify or challenge and provide alternative to the already existing conditions. In the stateless society, the management of the people shall be replaced by management of things. He stated that anxiety for one’s children is a form of self-seeking more dangerous than the desire for property, and the training of children at homes as a poor preparation for the whole and sole devotion, which the state has the right to demand. Also, in his opinion, family and property were the chief sources of disunity and social tension. Before coming to his idea of the regulated sexual intercourse and unique eugenics, let us quickly glance through Plato’s arguments against the family of guardians, apart from wastage of female social potentialities. When he talks of the unity and the purity of the state he simply means the unity of the ruling classes so that the philosopher kings could consolidate their rule over the producing masses with the help of the armed auxiliary. The following is a brief description of each form of communism: Plato’s communism of property is in no way related to the modern communism or socialism because there was no mention of socialization of the means of production. That is not so. Plato’s concept of sexuality not as a normal human attribute and need but simply as a tool of procreation of future rulers, whereas the toiling masses are left without education and subordinated to be fooled by myths  and illustrations, like the myth of metals. The history of fascist ideology is long and draws on many sources. There are various forms of anarchism. Introducction to Communism 1. That is to say Plato accords primacy to ideas over object but according to Marxism, historically objects have existed without ideas and historically ideas have emanated from the object. He strongly opined that family and property are always impediments not only to philosopher king, but also to a commoner in his discharge of duties. Plato’s communism is the outcome of conditions of Athens in the 4th century B.C. It is not that he regarded sex casually, but he demanded an amount of self-control that has never been realized among any large populations. Plato, the First "Planner" Many people believe that this issue arose with the advent of socialism a century or so ago and was given its impetus and virulence by the communist class war dogma of Karl Marx. Another question that was raised was related to those children who were born out of this union. Marx. The maintenance of family needs wealth implying that the involvements of the guardians in economic activities interfering into the realm of economic producers deviating from their political duties in violation of the principle of justice. Plato wanted the rulers of an ideal state not to get distracted from their work and get tempted towards self-interests. Plato their may be at most a ‘ crude ‘ communism. Plato’s communism is based on the premise that property, family instincts and private interests would distract man’s attention from his obligations to the community. [5] Plato speaks of these Plato’s theory is based on logical explanation of history and Marx’s on the economic in terms of dominant modes of production. The sinner men of this life are born as women in the other. Out of ignorance of genetic and biological laws, he links the restrained and regulated sexuality with one’s moral development that is not product of the biological accident of birth. Moreover, he was unable to see that there is anything in the natural capacity of women that corresponds to the Athenian practice, since many women were as well qualified as men to take part in political or even military duties. Plato believes in the eternity of the reality, Marx, like Heraclitus, believes in the eternity of the change; and historically proves that continuous, evolutionary, quantitative changes, in course of time mature into revolutionary qualitative changes, leading to overall transformation of economic, political and intellectual structures. • Which of these points to you feel our society should have? The status of women was miserable as in any patriarchal society. TOS 7. ... Plato’s reasoning for the necessity. Difference between Plato and Marx's Concept of Communism Concept. By Kyle Smith. It is also to be noted that when the capitalist world was reeling under the great depression, USSR beginning from the scratch under the state controlled planned development not only remained unaffected but also emerged as a big economic and military power. An oligarchical state to a Greek meant a state governed by, and in the interest of the well-born whose pos­session of property was hereditary, while a democratic state was governed by and for the many who had neither hereditary birth nor property. They were forced by the custom to be consumed in domestic chorus and child rearing. He believed that without communism there would be clash of ideas and interests between reason and appetite. This situation brings about a question of ‘Did Plato deny his guardians class a normal sex life?’ For this, Plato stated that mating was encouraged between those who can in the best possible manner produce children of the desired quality. Jm-fN ! Intellectuals react to and reflect upon their own time and space, i.e. Plato’s communism aimed at making the Greek city state, a self sufficient properly governed unit. Marx is more scientific and sociological than most of ancient philosophers, Share:WhatsAppFacebookTwitterTelegramRedditEmail This article is based on the 25th Chandrashekar Memorial Lecture delivered on 20 September 2020. ffi~IVERSITY . He blogs at Radical where this article first appeared. To destroy family, it is important to destroy selfishness. the philosophers and the warriors from the institutions of family and property. The Republic is silent about the education of the children of producing masses, condemned to remain deprived of Platonic scheme of education and the Ideal State practically turn out to be an aristocracy without private families and property, living in a commune unified domination  over, and extract surplus from the economic classes, the producers and the traders. from the perspective of the circumstances of his own choice and not in the given circumstances, transmitted from the past. -Communism will be ruled democratically by the masses. The improvement of the race demands a more controlled and a more selective type of union. -Communism will abolish the division of labor. This is a mistaken analogy. : • I\EINKE, S. J. They were expected to dine at common tables and live in common barracks, which were always open. So, these two classes must be free of any tension to run the administration. Further, the guardians, instead of caring for the welfare of their progeny, would thrive for the welfare of all. Plato’s communism, to put his theory very briefly, takes two forms. He stated that the proper age for begetting children women should be between the age of 20 and 40 and men between 25 and 55 because at this time, the physical and intellectual vigor is more. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. “….. . stability of his Ideal state. Plato’s approach was mainly concerned with one factor of produc­tion, that is, property that has to be socialized. Plato’s communism has been criticized as “half Communism” due to the fact that it is not the Communism of the whole society, but of the’ half society. Plato’s theory of communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice. Moreover, slavery, the specific feature of the Greek glory is completely missing from the discourse. Comparison between two diverse things belonging to different time and space separated by over 2,000 years is not only inconvenient but also irrelevant. …. Bound by common joys and sorrow, there is personal or exclusive relation to one family and in the process the entire state. Family is hurdle for women’s equal education and function as guardians and hence an obstruction in their emancipation. The paring is done at festive occasions with all the enthusing activities of poetry and songs (befitting the occasion) and of course prayers and sacrifices. Abolition of the institutions of marriage and family is essential for the moral development of guardians. Be if the breed of our guardians is to be socialized feature of the private as. Bc in Athens in an aristocratic family men of this life are as. Plan is good and Marx in the common mess but contradicts himself by his so many remarks Republic! The sense of cooperation that forms the totality of the farmers in platonic communism class... 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